For Round 4 of the Tournament:

Aff

Table of Contents

1AC – Plan

The US federal government should increase cooperative investment in land ports of entry with Mexico.



Advantage 1 – Economy


Growing bottlenecks at US-Mexico points of entry will cause a debilitating slowdown in North American trade - even current levels of trade across the border can’t be sustained.

Ramos 2013 Kristian Ramos is New Democracy Network’s Policy Director of the 21st Century Border Initiative, “Realizing the Strategic National Value of our Trade, Tourism and POEs with Mexico” The New Policy Institute is the educational affiliate of the NDN, a think tank based in Washington, DC. May 2013 http://ndn.org/sites/default/files/blog_files/NPI%20U%20S%20-Mexico%20Trade%20Tourism%20POE%20Report_0.pdf

Investment in POEs is key Key policies and infrastructure can either help or hinder this
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North American Development Bank may offer a model for funding border infrastructure projects.


Effective and efficient border crossings are key to US exports to Mexico – these are a crucial lynchpin to stimulate renewed US job growth.

O’Neil 2013Shannon O'Neil is Senior Fellow for Latin America Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), “U.S. Exports Depend on Mexico ” Latin America’s Moment January 11 http://blogs.cfr.org/oneil/2013/01/11/u-s-exports-depend-on-mexico/

Surprising to many Americans is the importance of the US’ trade with Mexico. While
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opportunity and security–for U.S. companies and workers alike.

Increased border efficiency stimulates manufacturing growth in the US
O’Neil 2013

Shannon O'Neil is Senior Fellow for Latin America Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), an independent, nonpartisan membership organization, think tank, and publisher. She holds a BA from Yale University, an MA in International Relations from Yale University, and a PhD in Government from Harvard University. Latin America’s Moment “Economic Change on Mexico’s Horizon” http://blogs.cfr.org/oneil/2013/03/26/economic-change-on-mexicos-horizon/

And we’ve already seen a lot of investment, particularly with U.S.
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. A rising tide on both sides of the border lifts all boats.

US-Mexico economic cooperation is the only hope for sustaining the global economic recovery – growth in Europe, China, and Japan are too soft to keep the world economy afloat
Schiffer 2013 Michael Schiffer President of the Inter-American Dialogue “A More Ambitious Agenda: A Report of the Inter-American Dialogue’s commission on Mexico-US relations.” February http://www.thedialogue.org/PublicationFiles/IAD9042_USMexicoReportEnglishFinal.pdf

The first is to reinforce and deepen economic cooperation. That includes increasing the productivity
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, and Canada in negotiations toward the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP).

US-Mexico border key to auto industry success
Hendricks 11 (Hendricks, David. "Auto Industry Dominates Texas-Mexico Border Trade." Houston Chronicle. 03 July 2011. <http://www.chron.com/business/article/Auto-industry-dominates-Texas-Mexico-border-trade-2081819.php>.the premier local news provider for the country's 4th largest city. Currently the nation's sixth-largest newspaper, the Houston Chronicle is a multimedia company publishing print and online products in English and Spanish that reach millions of people each month. The Houston Chronicle is owned by the Hearst Corporation.)

Anyone wondering which industrial sector is the most important in U.S.-Mexico
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handle freight for assembly plants and parts factories from central Mexico to Canada.

Fast and Efficient Supply Chains Critical to Auto Industry – Current Border Times Too Slow
Figueroa, Lee, and Schoik 12-2011Alejandro Figueroa, Research and Policy Analyst, NACTS Erik Lee, Associate Director, NACTS Rick Van Schoik, Director, NACTS, 12-2011, “Realizing the Value of Crossborder Trade with Mexico” http://21stcenturyborder.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/realizing-the-value-of-crossborder-trade-with-mexico2.pdf

The close economic ties between the U.S. and Mexico illustrate the dynamics
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final product which in turn helps create and sustain jobs in both countries.


US auto industry collapse leads to economic collapse
Snyder 12 (Snyder, Michael. "17 Facts About The Decline Of The U.S. Auto Industry That Are Almost Too Crazy To Believe." The Economic Collapse. 19 Jan. 2012. <http://theeconomiccollapseblog.com/archives/17-facts-about-the-decline-of-the-u-s-auto-industry-that-are-almost-too-crazy-to-believe>. An undergraduate in Commerce from the University of Virginia, and possesses a law degree with an LLM from the University of Florida law school, worked in numerous Washington DC lawfirms)

Very few things illustrate how dramatically America has been deindustrialized than the stunning decline of
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In fact, when great nations fall, it usually happens very quickly.

Global economic collapse causes war.
Harris and Burrows, 9 – *counselor in the National Intelligence Council, the principal drafter of Global Trends 2025, **member of the NIC’s Long Range Analysis Unit “Revisiting the Future: Geopolitical Effects of the Financial Crisis”, Washington Quarterly, http://www.twq.com/09april/docs/09apr_burrows.pdf)

Increased Potential for Global Conflict¶ Of course, the report encompasses more than economics
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within and between states in a more dog-eat-dog world.

Advantage 2 – US Mexico Relations

First, despite the growing importance of US-Mexico relations, new BILATERAL initiatives are necessary to jump start improvements – improving the movement of people and goods is the key location for dialogue.

O’Neil 2013Shannon O'Neil is Senior Fellow for Latin America Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), “U.S. Exports Depend on Mexico ” Latin America’s Moment January 11 http://blogs.cfr.org/oneil/2013/01/11/u-s-exports-depend-on-mexico/

Hidden behind the troubling headlines, however, is another, more hopeful Mexico —
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US needs to start seeing Mexico as a partner instead of a problem.

Growing a strong US-Mexican relationship is a prerequisite to continued US power projection and supremacy.

Pastor 2012 Robert A. Pastor is professor and director of the Center for North American Studies at American University. Pastor served as National Security Advisor on Latin America during the Carter Administration. “Beyond the Continental Divide” From the July/August 2012 issue of The American Interest http://www.the-american-interest.com/article.cfm?piece=1269

Most Americans think that the largest markets for U.S. exports are China
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be vastly beneficial. We don’t seem ready to recognize that truth either.

Successful cooperation on border crossing for goods spills over into other areas of relations – it’s the best opportunity to improve relations.

Bonner & Rozental 2009 Robert C. Bonner Former Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Former Administrator, Drug Enforcement Administration, Andrés Rozental Former Deputy Foreign Minister of Mexico; Former President and Founder Mexican Council on Foreign Relations (COMEXI) “Managing the US-Mexico Border: Cooperative Solutions to Common Challenges “ Report of the Binational Task Force on the US-Mexico Border http://www.pacificcouncil.org/document.doc?id=30

The 1,952-mile land boundary between the US and Mexico is the
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boundary should serve as a model for binational collaboration in confronting shared challenges.

Plan solves pressures on broader relations questions – it would create the opportunity for a significant increase in US-Mexico relations.

Olson & Lee 2012 Eric L Olson serves as Associate Director of the Mexico Institute at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, DC. Erik Lee serves as Associate Director at the North American Center for Transborder Studies (NACTS) at Arizona State University. “The State of Security in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region” Working Paper Series on the State of the U.S.-Mexico Border August 2012 http://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/State_of_Border_Security_Olson_Lee.pdf

Lasting progress in U.S.-Mexico border security can only come from increased
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rather than highly congested and bureaucratized nodes in our North American commercial network.

Loss of American power projection capacity causes global war.
Brooks, Ikenberry, and Wohlforth ’13 (Stephen, Associate Professor of Government at Dartmouth College, John Ikenberry is the Albert G. Milbank Professor of Politics and International Affairs at Princeton University, William C. Wohlforth is the Daniel Webster Professor in the Department of Government at Dartmouth College “Don’t Come Home America: The Case Against Retrenchment,” International Security, Vol. 37, No. 3 (Winter 2012/13), pp. 7–51)

A core premise of deep engagement is that it prevents the emergence of a far
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and that of potential rivals is by many measures growing rather than shrinking.

Advantage 3 – TPP

Cooperation on border efficiency is critical to developing a common agenda on trade with Mexico for the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement.
Villareal & Fergusson 2013M. Angeles Villareal Congressional Research Service Specialist in International Trade and Finance; Ian F. Fergusson Congressional Research Service Specialist in International Trade and Finance “NAFTA at 20: Overview and trade effects.” Congressional Research Service . . This article is available at DigitalCommons@ILR: http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/key_workplace/1034

The rising number of regional trade agreements throughout the world, in addition to the
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more energy to improving cooperation and enhancing efficiency in cross-border trade.


Only cooperation with Mexico in the TPP will create strong enough incentives for China to join the agreement.
Wilson May 2013 Christopher E. Wilson Associate at the Mexico Institute of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, where he develops the Institute’s research and programming on regional economic integration and U.S.-Mexico border affairs. “A U.S.-Mexico Economic Alliance: Policy Options for a Competitive Region” in New Ideas for a New Era: Policy Options for the Next Stage in U.S.-Mexico Relations Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute Print Edition, http://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/new_ideas_new_era.pdf

The US and Mexico are among the most open economies in the world, having
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. gets ready to begin negotiating a trade agreement with the European Union.


If the TPP excludes China, the pivot to Asia will be perceived as containment and create US-China conflict in Asia.
Kissinger, 2012 Henry A. A recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, he served as National Security Advisor and later concurrently as Secretary of State in the administrations of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. "The Future of US–Chinese Relations." Foreign Affairs 91.2 (2012): 44-5.

The current world order was built largely without Chinese participation, and hence China sometimes
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-sum issues, such as territory and security, may grow insurmountable.



A confrontational US-China relationship causes major power war.
Ratner, 2013 Dr. Ely Ratner is the Deputy Director of the Asia-Pacific Security Program at the Center for a New American Security. Dr. Ratner recently served in the Office of Chinese and Mongolian Affairs at the State Department as the lead political officer covering China’s external relations in Asia. "Rebalancing to Asia with an Insecure China." The Washington Quarterly 36.2 (2013): 21-38.

China's foreign policies have for decades reflected the principles of biding time, pursuing a
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—are chief among the tasks of U.S. China policy.



War between China and the US would go nuclear.
Goldstein 2013 First Things First The Pressing Danger of Crisis Instability in U.S.-China Relations Avery Goldstein is the David M. Knott Professor of Global Politics and International Relations, Director of the Center for the Study of Contemporary China, and Associate Director of the Christopher H. Browne Center for International Politics at the University of Pennsylvania. International Security, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Spring 2013), pp. 49–89

For at least the next decade, the advantage of the US in terms of
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-American crisis will render all speculation about the long term tragically moot.



1AC - Solvency

The plan solves – expanding and improving physical border infrastructure is necessary to facilitate cross-border trade.
Hutchins 2008Dwight Hutchins Senior Executive, Global Managing Director, Health Public Service Strategy, Accenture Consulting; M.P.A from the JFK School of Government at Harvard University, M.B.A. Northwestern University, and B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Tennessee. “IMPROVING ECONOMIC OUTCOMES BY REDUCING BORDER DELAYS FACILITATING THE VITAL FLOW OF COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC ACROSS THE U.S.-MEXICO BORDER” This study, commissioned by the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration, was conducted by Accenture in association with HDR Decision Economics and Crossborder Group Inc. http://shapleigh.org/system/reporting_document/file/487/DRAFT_Reducing_Border_Delays_Findings_and_Options_vFinal_03252008.pdf

An expansion of physical border crossing infrastructure is needed to reduce wait time. Expansion
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cleared trucks) either full time or during known periods of peak demand.

And, the plan facilitates improved US-Mexico cooperation while streamlining POEs
Bonner & Rozental 2009 Robert C. Bonner Former Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Former Administrator, Drug Enforcement Administration Andrés Rozental Former Deputy Foreign Minister of Mexico; Former President and Founder Mexican Council on Foreign Relations (COMEXI) “Managing the US-Mexico Border: Cooperative Solutions to Common Challenges “ Report of the Binational Task Force on the US-Mexico Border http://www.pacificcouncil.org/document.doc?id=30


The solutions ¶ We believe that that the most effective and efficient way to enhance
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the frontier to assist U.S. ¶ Customs and Border Protection.

Mexico is a ready and willing partner for border infrastructure improvements, but the US has to be the first mover – plan would catalyze growth in legal trade

O’Neil 2013 Shannon O'Neil is Senior Fellow for Latin America Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), “Mexico Makes It: A Transformed Society, Economy, and Government” March/April 2013 Foreign Affairs http://www.cfr.org/mexico/mexico-makes/p30098

BORDER BUDDIES Since NAFTA was passed, U.S.-Mexican trade has more
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order to boost the US' exports, jobs, and overall economic growth.

Expanding border crossing would pose no risk to security – minor investments on expediting flows would reap massive economic returns

Bonner & Rozental 2009 Robert C. Bonner Former Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Former Administrator, Drug Enforcement Administration Andrés Rozental Former Deputy Foreign Minister of Mexico; Former President and Founder Mexican Council on Foreign Relations (COMEXI) “Managing the US-Mexico Border: Cooperative Solutions to Common Challenges “ Report of the Binational Task Force on the US-Mexico Border http://www.pacificcouncil.org/document.doc?id=30

Congestion at crossing points imposes considerable costs on tourists, commuters, consumers, business
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, at any port of entry, with minimal variation about this average.


Finally, plan solves border security – the majority of illegal immigration and illicit trafficking happens at legitimate POEs

Wilson 2013Christopher E. Wilson Associate at the Mexico Institute of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. “Focus immigration security on official border crossings” Dallas Morning News April 11 http://www.dallasnews.com/opinion/latest-columns/20130411-christopher-wilson-focus-immigration-security-on-official-border-crossings.ece?action=reregister

As the senatorial Gang of Eight finalizes its immigration reform bill, it has become
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across borders and among federal, state and local government agencies and law enforcement
patterns of behavior that represent the greatest risks. We need strong cooperation and information sharing across borders and among federal, state and local government agencies and law enforcement.




Neg - Critical Cuban Embargo

Framework 1NC


1. Interpretation—the affirmative should defend a federal government policy that increases economic engagement to one of the topic countries
A. Colon means USFG is the Agent
Army Officer School 2004 (5-12, “# 12, Punctuation – The Colon and Semicolon”, http://usawocc.army.mil/IMI/wg12.htm)
The colon introduces the following: a. A list, but only after "
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resolved:"Resolved: (colon) That this council petition the mayor.
B. “United States Federal Government should” means the debate is solely about the outcome of a policy established by governmental means
Ericson 2003 (Jon M., Dean Emeritus of the College of Liberal Arts – California Polytechnic U., et al., The Debater’s Guide, Third Edition, p. 4)
The Proposition of Policy: Urging Future Action In policy propositions, each topic contains
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compelling reasons for an audience to perform the future action that you propose.

2. Vote Neg
A) Limits – Specific, limited resolutions ensure mutual ground which is key to sustainable controversy without sacrificing creativity or openness
Steinberg & Freeley 2008
*Austin J. Freeley is a Boston based attorney who focuses on criminal, personal injury and civil rights law, AND **David L. Steinberg , Lecturer of Communication Studies @ U Miami, Argumentation and Debate: Critical Thinking for Reasoned Decision Making pp45-
Debate is a means of settling differences, so there must be a difference of
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particular point of difference, which will be outlined in the following discussion.
A) Education – Scenario simulation lets students test decisions and strategies without the real stakes of having to implement them—this process is more transformative than the content of the 1ac
Hanghoj 2008
[Thorkild, PhD, assistant professor, School of Education, University of Aarhus, also affiliated with the Danish Research Centre on Education and Advanced Media Materials, located at the Institute of Literature, Media and Cultural Studies at the University of Southern Denmark http://static.sdu.dk/mediafiles/Files/Information_til/Studerende_ved_SDU/Din_uddannelse/phd_hum/afhandlinger/2009/ThorkilHanghoej.pdf]
Joas’ re-interpretation of Dewey’s pragmatism as a “theory of situated creativity”
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the contingent outcomes and domain-specific processes of problem-based scenarios.
These skills are key to policy transformation – internal link turns the aff
Mitchell 2010
[Gordon, associate professor and director of graduate studies in the Department of Communication at the University of Pittsburgh Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 13.1, “SWITCH-SIDE DEBATING MEETS DEMAND-DRIVEN RHETORIC OF SCIENCE”]
The watchwords for the intelligence community’s debating initiative— collaboration, critical thinking, collective
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meaning in inverted rhetorical situations characterized by an endemic surplus of heterogeneous content.

PIC out of Oil

Text: The United States federal government should repeal the Helms Burton Act of 1996 and sections 6001- 6004 and 6006 – 6010 of the Cuban Democracy Act; and amend Section 6005 of the Cuban Democracy Act (US Code Title 22, Chapter 69) to apply exclusively to goods and define “goods” exclusively as crude oil.

Renewables 1NC

A. Uniqueness – Multiple issues with offshore drilling rigs of Cuba make it very likely that oil companies will not keep drilling there
Jeff Frank 05/29/13 Jeff Franks is the Reuters Chief Correspondent for Texas, based in Houston and Reporter. “Cuban oil hopes sputter as Russians give up for now on well” http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/05/29/cuba-oil-idUSL2N0EA00W20130529

There is also Cuba's history of failed wells, which makes it hard to compete
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It is going to be extremely challenging (for Cuba)," he said.
And, Renewable Energy is winning the investment race
American Council On Renewable Energy (ACORE), California Clean Energy Fund (CalCEF), and Climate Policy Initiative 6/25 (ACORE, a 501(c)(3) non-profit membership organization, is dedicated to building a secure and prosperous America with clean, renewable energy. ACORE provides a common educational platform for a wide range of interests in the renewable energy community, focusing on technology, finance and policy. We convene thought leadership forums and create energy industry partnerships to communicate the economic, security and environmental benefits of renewable energy. Founded in 2004, the California Clean Energy Fund (CalCEF) is a family of non-profit organizations working together to accelerate the movement of clean energy technologies along the continuum from innovation to infrastructure. Using tools from finance, public policy and technological innovation, CalCEF pursues these goals at the local, state and national levels via three affiliated entities: CalCEF Ventures, an evergreen investment fund; CalCEF Innovations, which leads CalCEF’s analysis and solutions development; and CalCEF Catalyst, an industry acceleration platform. Climate Policy Initiative is an analysis and advisory organization that works to improve the most important energy and land use policies in the world. An independent, not-for-profit organization supported in part by a grant from the Open Society Foundations, CPI has offices and programs in Brazil, China, Europe, India, Indonesia, and the United States. “Strategies to Scale-Up U.S. Renewable Energy Investment” http://www.oregonwave.org/wp-content/uploads/Strategies-to-Scale-Up-US-Renewable-Energy-Investment.pdf)

Private sector investment in the U.S. renewable energy sector has grown significantly
AND
to produce more of the energy we consume here in the United States.

B. Link - Plan causes massive investment in Cuban Oil
Benjamin-Alvadaro 6 (Jonathan, Report for the Cuban Research Institute, Florida International University, PhD, Professor of Political Science at University of Nebraska at Omaha, Director of the Intelligence Community Centers of Academic Excellence Program at UNO, Treasurer of the American Political Science Association, “The Current Status and Future Prospects for Oil Exploration in Cuba: A Special,” http://cri.fiu.edu/research/commissioned-reports/oil-cuba-alvarado.pdf)
Why is it important to clarify the current status of Cuban energy in the face
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confidence, trust and cooperation in this critical issue area across the region.
C. Internal Link – Reliance on oil production crushes the transition to renewables
CBO, 2012 (Congressional Budget Office, “Energy Security in the United States”, May, http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/05-09-EnergySecurity.pdf)

Even if world oil prices declined as a result of increased U.S.
AND
the vulnerability of most consumers to disruptions in oil markets largely unchanged.38
D. Impact – Renewable Transition is critical to solve global warming
Leahy, ’11 (Stephen, Independent environmental journalist for 16 years, “Permafrost Melt Soon Irreversible Without Major Fossil Fuel Cuts”, Feb 21, http://www.countercurrents.org/leahy210911.htm)

UXBRIDGE - Thawing permafrost is threatening to overwhelm attempts to keep the planet from getting
AND
future, but we must start now," Leape said in a statement.
And, Positive feedbacks ensure runaway warming, causes extinction
Speth 2008[James, dean of the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Currently he serves the school as the Carl W. Knobloch, Jr. Dean and Sara Shallenberger Brown Professor in the Practice of Environmental Policy, The Bridge @ the Edge of the World, pg. 26]

The possibility of abrupt climate change is linked to what may be the most problematic
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and the trip will exterminate a large fraction of species on the planet.


Util Good

Frontline
Inherent equality of all beings requires utilitiarianism
Cummiskey 1996
(David, Associate Professor of Philosophy at Bates College and Ph.D. from UM, “Kantian Consequentialism”, p. 145-146)
In the next section, I will defend this interpretation of the duty of beneficence
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equal consideration suggests that one may have to sacrifice some to save many.

Privileging ethics over political consequences dooms the affirmative to political irrelevance
Isaac, 02 (Jeffrey, Professor of Political Science and director of the Center for the Study of Democracy and Public Life at Indiana University, Dissent, “Ends, Means, and Politics”, Spring, ebsco)
Power is not a dirty word or an unfortunate feature of the world. It
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not true believers. It promotes arrogance. And it undermines political effectiveness.

On Case

1. The aff’s claims of economic imperialism are a way to shut off legitimate criticism of the Castro regime. Lifting the embargo wouldn’t lead to a better life to Cubans as the problem is their political and economic structures. Even if your criticism of the embargo as being imperialist is true removing it is net worse- even far Left socialists understand the Castro regime is a blanket failure and should be resisted
PAUL D’AMATO [Paul D’Amato is managing editor of the International Socialist Review journal]
Cuba: Image and Reality. ISR Issue 51, January–February 2007 http://www.isreview.org/issues/51/cuba_image&reality.shtml


In many instances, the defense of Cuba’s right to independence and against the U
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its free health care and educational system especially—would come under threat.


2. The Aff is naïve- power always exists in the international arena. If the US doesn’t exercise imperial force others will and that is comparatively worse
Niall Ferguson [MA, D.Phil., is Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History at Harvard University. He is also a Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University, and a Senior Research Fellow at Jesus College, Oxford] IN "IMPERIAL DENIAL." WITH NONNA GORILOVSKAYA. MAY/JUNE 2004. http :www. globalpo I icy . org/empire/analvs is/2004/052 mperi al d en i al .htm)

Well, it could be for a very short-time indeed. One of
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repression, more hardship, especially for the people of the Middle East.>


3.

3. The Cuban government skims money from foreign investment and tourism, the plan plays right into their hands
Mitchell Bustillo [will be attending Columbia University in the fall where he will be majoring in Engineering with a minor in Economics on a Pre-Law track. He is a first-generation Cuban-American, a Hispanic Heritage Foundation Gold Medallion Winner, and a former United States Senate Page, appointed by Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison. He one day hopes to return to the Hill]¶ Time to Strengthen the Cuban Embargo¶ May 9, 2013http://www.internationalpolicydigest.org/2013/05/09/time-to-strengthen-the-cuban-embargo/

Still there is the idea that further increasing American tourism to this nearby Caribbean island
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the Cuban people cannot be blamed on the United States or the embargo.





4. The aff is an act of moral irresponsibility actively rewarding a brutal and oppressive regime- the Embargo is the only way to pressure the regime into reform. The status quo is the most ethical act
Miguel Olivella [Florida based attorney and writer about Cuban-American issues]¶ May 24, 2011¶ Miguel Olivella: Morality, not votes, guides embargo¶ http://www.tallahassee.com/article/20110525/OPINION05/105250303/Miguel-Olivella-Morality-not-votes-guides-embargo?nclick_check=1

Carl Leubsdorf advances the notion that the Cuban embargo should be abandoned since it is
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have been zealously protecting for 50 years — lives of privilege and wealth.

5. Moral absolutism is complicity with violence – it allows people to die for the sake of clean hands
Isaac, 2002
(Jeffrey C., James H. Rudy professor of Political Science and director of the Center for the Study of Democracy and Public Life at Indiana University, Bloomington, “Ends, Means and politics,” Dissent//, Spring)
As writers such as Niccolo Machiavelli, Max Weber, Reinhold Niebuhr, and Hannah
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not true believers. It promotes arrogance. And it undermines political effectiveness.


Round 3

v. HRK NAIF -

1NC Topicality Economic Engagement


1 Interpretation Economic Engagement must create economic agreements and cooperation between states - Facilitating trade through investment makes the plan “commercial” and not economic.
Woolcock 13 – Stephen Woolcock, Lecturer in International Relations at The London School of Economics, and Sir Nicholas Bayne, Fellow at the International Trade Policy Unit of the London School of Economics, The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy, p. 387

Before suggesting some ways in which economic diplomacy could be seen as a distinct branch
AND
of rules and disciplines within which markets and such commercial diplomacy function.4

2. Violation the affirmative simply promotes investment and trade which is commercial engagement.
3. Reasons to vote negative –
A. Limits – Commercial engagement means that affs that develop exports, Foreign Investment, tech sharing and tourism are all topical – makes it impossible to research gutting fairness
B. Ground – Core negative disad ground is based on economic engagement – allowing commercial engagement means the negative never has a core DA to read – makes educational debate impossible

4. Topicality is a Voting Issue and should be evaluated in terms of which team has the best interpretation.



1NC Renewables DA

A. Uniqueness – Mexico’s oil production is tanking
Krauss and Malkin ’10 (“Mexico Oil Politics Keeps Riches Just Out of Reach” New York Times, Clifford Krauss and Elisabeth Malkin, March 8, 2010 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/09/business/global/09pemex.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0)
In all, Mexican oil output has dropped from just short of 3.5
AND
in Chicontepec. “The problem is getting it out of the ground.”
And, Renewable Energy is winning the investment race
American Council On Renewable Energy (ACORE), California Clean Energy Fund (CalCEF), and Climate Policy Initiative 6/25 (ACORE, a 501(c)(3) non-profit membership organization, is dedicated to building a secure and prosperous America with clean, renewable energy. ACORE provides a common educational platform for a wide range of interests in the renewable energy community, focusing on technology, finance and policy. We convene thought leadership forums and create energy industry partnerships to communicate the economic, security and environmental benefits of renewable energy. Founded in 2004, the California Clean Energy Fund (CalCEF) is a family of non-profit organizations working together to accelerate the movement of clean energy technologies along the continuum from innovation to infrastructure. Using tools from finance, public policy and technological innovation, CalCEF pursues these goals at the local, state and national levels via three affiliated entities: CalCEF Ventures, an evergreen investment fund; CalCEF Innovations, which leads CalCEF’s analysis and solutions development; and CalCEF Catalyst, an industry acceleration platform. Climate Policy Initiative is an analysis and advisory organization that works to improve the most important energy and land use policies in the world. An independent, not-for-profit organization supported in part by a grant from the Open Society Foundations, CPI has offices and programs in Brazil, China, Europe, India, Indonesia, and the United States. “Strategies to Scale-Up U.S. Renewable Energy Investment” http://www.oregonwave.org/wp-content/uploads/Strategies-to-Scale-Up-US-Renewable-Energy-Investment.pdf)

Private sector investment in the U.S. renewable energy sector has grown significantly
AND
to produce more of the energy we consume here in the United States.
B. Link – Expanded US/Mexico cooperation increases our dependence on Oil
Krauss and Malkin ’10 (“Mexico Oil Politics Keeps Riches Just Out of Reach” New York Times, Clifford Krauss and Elisabeth Malkin, March 8, 2010 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/09/business/global/09pemex.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0)
To the Mexican people, one of the great achievements in their history was
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an embarrassing disaster for Pemex, the latest in a string of them.

C. Internal Link – Reliance on oil production crushes the transition to renewables
CBO, 2012 (Congressional Budget Office, “Energy Security in the United States”, May, http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/05-09-EnergySecurity.pdf)

Even if world oil prices declined as a result of increased U.S.
AND
the vulnerability of most consumers to disruptions in oil markets largely unchanged.38
D. Impact – Renewable Transition is critical to solve global warming
Leahy, ’11 (Stephen, Independent environmental journalist for 16 years, “Permafrost Melt Soon Irreversible Without Major Fossil Fuel Cuts”, Feb 21, http://www.countercurrents.org/leahy210911.htm)

UXBRIDGE - Thawing permafrost is threatening to overwhelm attempts to keep the planet from getting
AND
future, but we must start now," Leape said in a statement.
And, Positive feedbacks ensure runaway warming, causes extinction
Speth 2008[James, dean of the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Currently he serves the school as the Carl W. Knobloch, Jr. Dean and Sara Shallenberger Brown Professor in the Practice of Environmental Policy, The Bridge @ the Edge of the World, pg. 26]

The possibility of abrupt climate change is linked to what may be the most problematic
AND
and the trip will exterminate a large fraction of species on the planet.


TPA Politics DA


Congress will pass trade promotion authority for Obama now, despite partisanship on other issues.

Barfield 7/3/13 Claude Barfield is a Resident Scholar at AEI and a former consultant to the office of the US Trade Representative, July 3, 2013, “On trade, Republicans have Speaker Boehner’s back” http://www.aei-ideas.org/2013/07/on-trade-republicans-have-speaker-boehners-back/

John Boehner still has much to fear from the rambunctious younger cohorts of his Republican
AND
scrambling for votes, as was the case recently with the agriculture bill.

Plan drains capital – Backlash and hostage empirically proven
LeoGrande, 12
William M. LeoGrande School of Public Affairs American University, Professor of Government and a specialist in Latin American politics and U.S. foreign policy toward Latin America, Professor LeoGrande has been a frequent adviser to government and private sector agencies, 12/18/12, http://www.american.edu/clals/upload/LeoGrande-Fresh-Start.pdf

The Second Obama Administration Where in the executive branch will control over Cuba policy lie
AND
rarely happen unless the urgency of the problem forces policymakers to take action.
Internal Link - Obama’s capital is critical to passing Trade promotion authority.

Politi, 5/20/13 James. Financial Times [London (UK)] 20 May 2013 Financial Times US economics and trade correspondent “US business keen to promote 'fast track' trade deals: Political debate” Proquest

A campaign has been launched to 'educate' legislators on the benefits involved, writes,
AND
though TPP is more contentious especially after the announcement that Japan would accede.


Impact Passing TPA is critical to the future viability of the WTO – which will collapse now.
Jeffrey Schott 6/14/13 Senior Fellow, Peterson Institute for International Economics Payoff from the World Trade Agenda
Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC
June 14, 2013 http://www.piie.com/publications/papers/transcript-20130614.pdf

Now, what are the prospects for Bali? Well, they’re not so good
AND
bigger WTO package that would be pulled together and accelerated negotiations post Bali.

WTO credibility key to cooperation – fosters peace and solves conflict
Blanco 2013 (Herminio Blanco, AllAfrica Staff Writer, 4-29-13, “The relevance of the World Trade Organization for Africa”, http://www.tralac.org/2013/04/29/the-relevance-of-the-world-trade-organization-for-africa/)

There is an urgent need to preserve the credibility of the WTO as a forum
AND
but especially those of smaller size and the least developed countries of Africa.


1NC - Energy Adv Frontline

1. Shale Gas solves Oil Dependence in the Status Quo.

Krauss, 2012 (Clifford, national business correspondent based in Houston, covering energy, “Energy Independence in the United States” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/14/business/energy-environment/energy-independence-in-america-would-not-be-fully-independent.html?_r=0, LL)

EVER since the Arab oil embargoes in the 1960s and 1970s, American presidents have
AND
it’s better that it be our oil rather than from the Middle East.

2. Domestic oil production is developing now – the status quo solves.

Domm, 2013 (Patti, CNBC Executive News Editor, “US Is on Fast-Track to Energy Independence: Study” CNBC, http://www.cnbc.com/id/100450133, LL)

U.S. oil and gas production is evolving so rapidly—and demand
AND
he's had some "push back but not as much as last year."



3. Can’t solve dependence on the Middle East – it’s a global market.
Duffy 12
Aimee, “Busting the Myth of Energy Independence”, Aug 28, http://www.dailyfinance.com/2012/08/28/busting-the-myth-of-energy-independence/, CMR

The global marketplace ¶ Even if we were to accept these three assumptions, there
AND
likelihood that we will continue to turn to foreign sources in the future.
4. Mexico can’t be a major producer of oil --- too many barriers, lack of interest
Duffy 12
Aimee, “Busting the Myth of Energy Independence”, Aug 28, http://www.dailyfinance.com/2012/08/28/busting-the-myth-of-energy-independence/, CMR

Assumption No. 2: Everything is fine in Mexico ¶ To put it simply
AND
it seems foolish to rely on the country for an increase in imports.


5. No solvency - Energy independence won’t solve US vulnerability in the middle east.
O’Sullivan 13 (Meghan, professor at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government and former deputy national security adviser in the George W. Bush administration, ’Energy Independence’ Alone Won’t Boost U.S. Power, Feb 14, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-02-14/-energy-independence-alone-won-t-boost-u-s-power.html, CMR)

Still, despite all this good news, the U.S. energy boom
AND
it was when Uncle Sam secured much of its oil from Saudi Arabia.

North American Integration

Regional cooperation high now – multiple indicators
WSJ 5/2/13 (“Statement: U.S., Mexico Stress Greater Cooperation”, http://blogs.wsj.com/washwire/2013/05/02/statement-u-s-mexico-stress-greater-cooperation/, CMR)

Economic Competitiveness¶ Underpinning our successful United States-Mexico economic relationship are trade and
AND
their interest in maintaining close coordination with regards to other relevant trade negotiations.

No solvency- Full integration impossible --- too many barriers
Economist 11 (“The push for deeper ties peters out”, Feb 24, http://www.economist.com/node/18229546, CMR)

WHEN Canada, Mexico and the United States implemented the North American Free-Trade
AND
the next North American summit will probably prove just as difficult to schedule.


No chance the plan solves – only trilateral cooperation with Canada can ensure successful integration
Pastor 12 – prof and director of the Center for North American Studies @ American
Robert A, Beyond the Continental Divide, July/August, http://www.the-american-interest.com/article.cfm?piece=1269, CMR

The problem is that our leaders do not think continentally. As long as they
AND
our three great countries, but only if we first see the possibility.
Plan won’t secure long-term investment – countries not convinced of benefits
Pastor 13 – Professor and Director of the Center for North American Studies at American University (Robert A, “Speed Bumps, Potholes, and Roadblocks on the North American Superhighway”, Winter, Lexis, CMR)

None of the many proposals that have been advanced for the region can be achieved
AND
wider Community that could attract the support of the people and their legislatures.
v
6. Heg doesn’t solve war – No threats require primacy and other factors ensure security.

Friedman and Preble 10 (Benjamin Friedman is a research fellow in defense and homeland security studies at the Cato Institute, Christopher Preble is director of foreign policy studies at the Cato Institute, Budgetary Savings from Military Restraint, September 22, 2010 Cato Policy Analysis No. 667 September 23, 2010 http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/PA667.pdf

The United States confuses what it wants from its military, which is global primacy
AND
resentment. Global military primacy is a game not worth the candle.56
7. Decline wouldn’t cause war – states have an incentive to avoid it.

Zakaria 08 (Fareed Zakaria, editor of Newsweek International, 2008, The Post-American World, p. 244)

In certain areas – the South China Sea, for example – U.S
AND
futile and unnecessary. Small work-arounds might be just as effective.

Nwg Rd 5


2 off case:
China DA
PTX
==TPA Politics DA==

1) Congress will pass trade promotion authority for Obama now, despite partisanship on other issues.

Barfield 7/3/13 Claude Barfield is a Resident Scholar at AEI and a former consultant to the office of the US Trade Representative, July 3, 2013, "On trade, Republicans have Speaker Boehner~’s back" http://www.aei-ideas.org/2013/07/on-trade-republicans-have-speaker-boehners-back/
John Boehner still has much to fear from the rambunctious younger cohorts of his Republican
AND
scrambling for votes, as was the case recently with the agriculture bill.

2) Plan drains capital – Backlash and hostage empirically proven

LeoGrande, 12
William M. LeoGrande School of Public Affairs American University, Professor of Government and a specialist in Latin American politics and U.S. foreign policy toward Latin America, Professor LeoGrande has been a frequent adviser to government and private sector agencies, 12/18/12, http://www.american.edu/clals/upload/LeoGrande-Fresh-Start.pdf
The Second Obama Administration Where in the executive branch will control over Cuba policy lie
AND
rarely happen unless the urgency of the problem forces policymakers to take action.

3) Internal Link - Obama~’s capital is critical to passing Trade promotion authority.

Politi, 5/20/13 James. Financial Times ~~[London (UK)~~] 20 May 2013 Financial Times US economics and trade correspondent "US business keen to promote ~’fast track~’ trade deals: Political debate" Proquest
A campaign has been launched to ~’educate~’ legislators on the benefits involved, writes,
AND
though TPP is more contentious especially after the announcement that Japan would accede.

4) Impact Passing TPA is critical to the future viability of the WTO – which will collapse now.

Jeffrey Schott 6/14/13 Senior Fellow, Peterson Institute for International Economics Payoff from the World Trade Agenda
Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC
June 14, 2013 http://www.piie.com/publications/papers/transcript-20130614.pdf
Now, what are the prospects for Bali? Well, they~’re not so good
AND
bigger WTO package that would be pulled together and accelerated negotiations post Bali.

5) WTO credibility key to cooperation – fosters peace and solves conflict

Blanco 2013 (Herminio Blanco, AllAfrica Staff Writer, 4-29-13, "The relevance of the World Trade Organization for Africa", http://www.tralac.org/2013/04/29/the-relevance-of-the-world-trade-organization-for-africa/)
There is an urgent need to preserve the credibility of the WTO as a forum
AND
but especially those of smaller size and the least developed countries of Africa.
==China DA 1NC==

1) Uniqueness - China pursuing influence in Mexico in response to US Asia pivot

The Economist 6/8/13 ("From pivot to twirl", [[http://www.economist.com/news/china/21579062-chinese-leader-tries-smooth-move-americas-backyard-pivot-twirl-http://www.economist.com/news/china/21579062-chinese-leader-tries-smooth-move-americas-backyard-pivot-twirl]], CMR)
LIKE a veteran salsa dancer, Xi Jinping, the Chinese president, has responded
AND
such as tequila and pork. China~’s investment in Mexico has been minute.

2) Link – The plan crowds out China~’s influence in Mexico – competition with US is zero-sum

Funaro 6/4/13 (Kaitlin, "Xi flies to Mexico as China battles US for influence in Latin America", [[http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/asia-pacific/china/130604/xi-flies-mexico-china-battles-us-influence-latin-ame-http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/asia-pacific/china/130604/xi-flies-mexico-china-battles-us-influence-latin-ame]], CMR)
Chinese President Xi Jinping is making the most of his four-country tour of
AND
that from Xi~’s team, though you don~’t find any threatening rhetoric either."

3) Internal Link - US-China competition for influence in Latin America causes war

Hilton 13 - London-based writer and broadcaster (Isabel, "China in Latin America: Hegemonic challenge?", Feb 13, [[http://www.peacebuilding.no/var/ezflow_site/storage/original/application/26ff1a0cc3c0b6d5692c8afbc054aad9.pdf-http://www.peacebuilding.no/var/ezflow_site/storage/original/application/26ff1a0cc3c0b6d5692c8afbc054aad9.pdf]], CMR)
China~’s presence in Latin America is unlikely to diminish and will continue to affect its
AND
allies of the U.S. could face ¶ some uncomfortable choices.

4) Impact – US-China war causes extinction

Johnson 2 – president of the Japan Policy Research Institute, a tax-exempt nonprofit educational and research organization (Chalmers, Okinawa Between the United States and Japan, January, [[http://www.jpri.org/publications/occasionalpapers/op24.html-http://www.jpri.org/publications/occasionalpapers/op24.html]], CMR)
China is another matter. No sane figure in the Pentagon wants a war with
AND
forward-deployed US forces on China~’s borders have virtually no deterrent effect.
==1NC A2 TPP==

1) The plan ends up hurting the TPP as Latin American policy drains PC. The issues of Latin America are being drawn up to the front, crowding out other issues.

2) Plan drains Obama~’s focus – agenda is finite

Pastor 13 – Professor and Director of the Center for North American Studies at American University (Robert A, "Speed Bumps, Potholes, and Roadblocks on the North American Superhighway", Winter, Lexis, CMR)
Obama sought to warm the two bilateral relationships, but his agenda was so full
AND
into reverse. The costs of doing business among the NAFTA countries increased.

3) Latin America policy drains diplomatic capital – crowds-out other issues

Rozental 10 – member of the Advisor board, president of Rozental %26 Asociados in Mexico City and senior fellow at the Brookings Institution (Andres, "What Do the U.S. Election Results Mean for Latin America?", 11/8, [[http://www.thedialogue.org/page.cfm?pageID=32%26pubID=2505-http://www.thedialogue.org/page.cfm?pageID=32%26pubID=2505]], CMR)
A: Andrés Rozental, member of the Advisor board, president of Rozental %26
AND
Latin America might substantially change during the remaining biennium of his first term."

4) China will not challenge or start a war with the US.

Bianjiang June 2013 Yu Bianjiang is an associate at the Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University Sailing Against the Current— China-U.S. Relations in the Next Stage [[http://isd.georgetown.edu/files/Yu_Sailing_FinalEditedPaper.pdf-http://isd.georgetown.edu/files/Yu_Sailing_FinalEditedPaper.pdf]]
Many books and articles discuss an inevitable big power rivalry between China, the rising
AND
serious prospect in what is now clearly the post-hegemonic age."19
==1NC A2 GSC==

1) Any single policy can~’t solve supply chain inefficiency.

Hoekman, 2013 Bernard Hoekman is a Professor at the European University Institute, Florence Italy, where he directs the Research Programme on International Economics in the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies~’ Global Governance Programme. "Global supply chains and trade agreements: beyond business as usual" June 11th, 2013 http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2013/06/11/global-supply-chains-and-trade-agreements-beyond-business-as-usual/
The current approaches pursued by governments arguably are not optimal because they focus on specific
AND
policies, corruption and theft can all impact on supply-chain costs.

2) Many alt causes to US-Mexico supply chain inefficiencies.

Gottfredson 2013 Mark Gottfredson is a partner with Bain %26 Company based in Dallas and a senior member of Bain~’s Performance Improvement practice. Finding the hidden costs in broken supply chains http://www.bain.com/Images/BAIN_BRIEF_Finding_the_hidden_costs_in_broken_supply_chains.pdf
Over the years, Bain has worked with many companies weighing the merits of trading
AND
can boost fi xed costs by as much as 7% per year.

3) Global supply chain efficiency won~’t work – a one-size fits all approach fails.

Ikenson 2008 Daniel Ikenson is associate director of Cato~’s Center for Trade Policy Studies and coauthor of Antidumping Exposed: The Devilish Details of Unfair Trade Law While Doha Sleeps Securing Economic Growth through Trade Facilitation June 17, 2008 No. 3 http://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/pubs/pdf/tpa-037.pdf
Over the last decade, nearly every country reduced its tariff barriers, and only
AND
without waiting for some multilateral agreement. Many countries are already doing so.
Without a Doha agreement, countries are already modernizing their customs procedures, investing in
AND
location for submitting administrative paperwork and addressing all compliance issues~~], risk management and
post-clearance audit. Senegal, Ghana, Mauritius and Mozambique are examples of
AND
. There~’s nothing like the existential threat of relentless competition to focus minds.

==1NC FL – Solvency==

1) Turn - coordination of point of entry infrastructure between the US and Mexico fails and makes congestion worse.

Regan 2011

Sean Regan Commander, U.S. Coast Guard NAVAL WAR COLLEGE U.S. – MEXICO POLICY COORDINATION AN ASSESSMENT OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY BORDER POLICY COORDINATION EFFORT A paper submitted to the Faculty of the Naval War College in partial satisfaction of the requirements of the Department of Joint Military Operations. 2011 http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a555536.pdf
The Policy Coordination Challenge Bureaucracies on both sides of the border struggle to coordinate policies
AND
departments within each national-level structure with POE-related responsibilities.9

2) No Solvency – Mexico says no - the new Nieto administration in Mexico is less likely to cooperate with the US on security measures

O~’Neil 4/29/13

Shannon O~’Neil is Senior Fellow for Latin America Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), an independent, nonpartisan membership organization, think tank, and publisher. She holds a BA from Yale University, an MA in International Relations from Yale University, and a PhD in Government from Harvard University. "Obama Heads to Mexico" Latin America~’s Moment http://blogs.cfr.org/oneil/2013/04/29/obama-heads-to-mexico/
Yet no less important for the two neighbors is security. Under Felipe Calderón~’s administration
AND
blossomed, setting the two neighbors on a different and more collaborative path.
On this policy front, the direction Peña Nieto~’s government plans to take is less
AND
and some worry less open to working with their neighbor than their predecessors.
To be fair, security is harder. After more than a decade of underperformance
AND
, making it a tricky sell for a government trying to differentiate itself.
For Obama, the challenge this week will be to push forward on both fronts, recognizing and embracing the economic ambitions while also ensuring that security cooperation doesn~’t falter. What really matters is what happens after the visit and how the U.S. government works with all of these elements and directions in Peña Nieto~’s Cabinet. Because the outcome matters — as no other country affects the United States on a day-to-day basis as much as Mexico.

3) Plan fails and will be rejected – internal reform is a pre-requisite to investment

Hufbauer %26 Scott ~’5
Reginald Jones Senior Fellow since ~’92, was the Marcus
Wallenberg Professor of Int~’l Finance Diplomacy @ Georgetown University, AND Jeffrey J, senior fellow, joined the Inst for Int~’l Economic in ~’83, visiting lecturer @ Princeton, "NAFTA Revisited: Achievements and Challenges", page number below
To generate significant sums required for such investments, Mexico will need to attract both
AND
first willing to tap its own resources. ~~[page 472-473~~]

4) No Mexican cooperation

David Hendricks (writer for the San Antonio Express-News) February 7, 2006 " NADBank~’s future called into question" Lexis
The U.S. and Mexican treasury departments are discussing the future of the
AND
.S. and Mexican governments over the years in helping NADBank succeed.