Impact turn to CIR:


===Plan: The United States federal government should increase economic engagement toward Mexico through an economic [[#|investment]] fund===

Advantage 1: North American Integration

North American regional economic strength is vulnerable. A breakdown of cooperation with Mexico would cause the decline of American power.

Clarkson %26 Mildenberger ~’11 Stephen Clarkson, professor of political economy, [[#|University]] of Toronto, and former fellow, Woodrow Wilson Center Matto Mildenberger, Ph.D. [[#|student]], Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Dependent America?: How Canada and Mexico Construct Us [[#|Power]] p. 272

The United States~’ relationship with Canada and Mexico thus presents a paradox. Does North
most valuable and easily cultivated foreign asset accelerated its self-induced fall.

*The plan will accelerate effective investment in Mexico and provide a foundation for North American integration

Pastor ~’8 – Prof and founding director of the Center for North American Studies **
Robert, The Future of North America, July/August,, CMR

Another challenge is to narrow the [[#|gap]] in income that separates¶ Mexico from its
and a¶ path to legalization will be needed to make it just.

Growing strong regional relations is a prerequisite to continued US power projection and supremacy.

Pastor 12 Robert A. Pastor is professor and director of the Center for North American Studies at [[#|American University]]. Pastor served as National Security Advisor on Latin America during the Carter Administration. "Beyond the Continental Divide" From the July/August 2012 issue of The American Interest

Most Americans think that the largest markets for U.S. exports are China
be vastly beneficial. We don~’t seem ready to recognize that truth either.

Loss of American power projection capacity causes global war.

Brooks, Ikenberry, and Wohlforth ~’13 (Stephen, Associate Professor of Government at Dartmouth [[#|College]], John Ikenberry is the Albert G. Milbank Professor of Politics and International Affairs at Princeton [[#|University]], William C. Wohlforth is the Daniel Webster Professor in the Department of Government at Dartmouth [[#|College]] "Don~’t Come Home America: The Case Against Retrenchment," International Security, Vol. 37, No. 3 (Winter 2012/13), pp. 7–51)

A core premise of deep engagement is that it prevents the emergence of a far
that of potential rivals is by many measures growing rather than shrinking. 85

North American integration key to solve democracy, disease, and the environment

Céspedes ~’8 – Diplomat in Residence, School of International Service and Senior Fellow,Center for North American Studies
Ernesto, North America, Security, and the Next US¶ National Security Strategy:¶ A Reflection, April 29,, CMR

Under the topic "Working with others in defusing regional conflicts", Mexico and¶
the Security and Prosperity Partnership for North America from 2005¶ and on.

Disease spread will cause extinction

Steinbruner 98 [John D., Senior Fellow at Brookings Institution, “Biological weapons: A plague upon all houses,” Foreign Policy, Dec 22, CMR]

It is a considerable comfort and undoubtedly a key to our survival that, so
, but a fundamental security problem for the species as a whole.

Democracy solves extinction
Diamond, prof of pol sci, 95—prof of political science and sociology, Stanford. Senior research fellow at Hoover. (Larry, Promoting Democracy in the 1990s,

Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons [[#|continue]] to proliferate. The very source of
their own citizens, who organize to protest the destruction of their environments.

Environmental collapse causes extinction

CASBRC 1 (California Academy of Sciences Biodiversity Resource Center, "Threats To Biodiversity",

Currently, more than 10,000 species become extinct each year and while precise
expertise, it is now, in this time of rapid environmental erosion.

1AC – Energy

Advantage 2: Energy

North American energy sector is at a turning point – increased [[#|investment]] in Mexico~’s energy sector is critical to reduce [[#|power]] of US adversaries
Keppel 13
Stephen, "U.S., Mexico and Canada Could Become Energy Independent", April 17,, CMR

Just seven years after President George W. Bush lamented the United States~’ addiction to
it will fail to capitalize on the U.S.-Canada boom.

Increased investment in Mexico~’s energy sector key to unlocking oil and gas reserves

Manley et al. 5 – Senior Counsel at McCarthy Te´trault LLP
John M, "Building a North American Community", online, CMR

Develop a North American Resource Strategy¶ All three North American countries produce substantial amounts
¶ important steps, however, must be taken in Mexico by Mexicans.

Independently, the plan encourages internal reform in Mexico~’s energy sector

Pastor 8 – Director @ Center for North American Studies
Robert A, "The Solution to North America~’s Triple Problem: The Case for a North American Investment Fund", Year 2, No. 2, January,, CMR

(5) A Community and Conditionality. Of the %2420 billion each year
but they ¶ could only implement them with the support of the EU.

This framework will shield the US from vulnerability of foreign sources

Gjelten 12 (Tom, "Energy Independence For U.S.? Try Energy Security", 10/25,, CMR)

Gone from this year~’s presidential campaign are most mentions of climate change, environmental pollution
less with Canada, could jeopardize the U.S. energy supply.

Dependence causes multiple war scenarios

Glaser 11 (Professor of Political Science and International Relations Elliot School of International Affairs The George Washington University, "Reframing Energy Security: How Oil Dependence Influences U.S. National Security," August 2011,

Oil dependence could reduce a state~’s security if its access to oil is vulnerable to
import oil will be uninterrupted and will pursue policies to ensure [[#|secure access]].

*Specifically, oil dependence makes conflict over the Strait of Hormuz inevitable – that escalates and goes nuclear

Glaser 11** (Professor of Political Science and International Relations Elliot School of International Affairs The George Washington University, "Reframing Energy Security: How Oil Dependence Influences U.S. National Security," August 2011,

Energy dependence could draw the United States into a conflict in which a regional [[#|power]]
a full-scale invasion or a conventional attack against their nuclear forces.

1AC- Solvency


Investment fund reinvigorates US regional leadership and sustains long-term cooperation with Mexico while promoting successful integration

Pastor 12 – prof and director of the Center for North American Studies @ American **
Robert A, Beyond the Continental Divide, July/August,, CMR

The Presidents of the United States and Mexico and the Prime Minister of Canada should
these small steps could begin to invigorate the sleeping giant of North America.
AND, Canada will follow US lead
Pastor 8 – Director @ Center for North American Studies
Robert A, "The Solution to North America~’s Triple Problem: The Case for a North American Investment Fund", Year 2, No. 2, January,, CMR

In addition to economic interests, there are three reasons why Canada should want ¶
selfperceptions could change, and that could mean that fewer Mexicans would emigrate.



Text: The United States federal government should amend relevant definitions in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 to include algae-derived fuels eligible for all tax credits, subsidies, and price supports.

Amending the RFS to include price supports for algae spurs green crude production. This provides clean renewable fuel – solves energy dependence and breaks the food/fuel link

Jason Pyle (Chief Executive Officer, Sapphire Energy) June 12 2008 "Renewable Fuels And Food Prices," CQ Congressional Testimony
First, let me thank the Committee for its leadership on alternative, renewable fuels
crops, or other natural resources. Sapphire has turned sunlight into gasoline.

Food/fuel link creates unique risks for escalation – food spikes now exacerbates current economic conditions – causes rampant civil conflict *gender modified*

Manila Times November 5 2008 "Let~’s attend to food security",
He tells the world that the economic meltdown now afflicting the globe is gripping (
30 countries and contributed to the fall of at least one elected government.

Food riots escalate to global war – ignite all regional hot spots

Bernardo V. Lopez September 10 1998 "Global recession phase two: Catastrophic (Private sector views)", BusinessWorld
Certainly, global recession will spawn wars of all kinds. Ethnic wars can easily
on the use of force and its superiority to get its ways internationally.


Immigration reform will pass and it political capital is key

Latin American Herald Tribune 7/16 "Obama Ready to Spend Political Capital on Immigration",
WASHINGTON – President Barack Obama told Hispanic Democratic legislators on Wednesday that he will invest
struggle," taking into account the opposition of many Republicans and other conservative groups

b.) Republicans hate the plan- see it as caving to the regime

Taylor 6/18 (Guy, The Washington Times in 2011 as the State Department correspondent, "U.S.-Cuba mail talks spark speculation of wider outreach,", ME)
Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Florida Republican, said that the White House
since Cuban leader Fidel Castro agreed to house Soviet ballistic missiles in 1961.

c.) Impact – CIR is key to the economy and competitiveness

Green 7/2 - founder and president of, an advocacy group created by technology leaders that promotes policies to keep the United States and its citizens competitive in a global economy (Joe, "House, knowledge economy needs immigrants",, CMR)

Our country has changed a lot during those 27 years, but not — so
reform to unlock those contributions and by doing so change millions of lives.

d.) Collapse of the US economic power causes nuclear war

Khalilzad 11 Zalmay was the United States ambassador to Afghanistan, Iraq, and the United Nations during the presidency of George W. Bush and the director of policy planning at the Defense Department from 1990 to 1992, " The Economy and National Security", 2-8-11,, CMR

Today, economic and fiscal trends pose the most severe long-term threat to
way, hostile states would be emboldened to make aggressive moves in their regions


The spread of neoliberal market mechanisms by the US is part of a colonial strategy that attempts to control Latin America for the benefit of modernist structures.

Mignolo- 2006 ~~[Walter D. Mignolo, Professor of Cultural Studies at Duke University, Citizenship, Knowledge, and the Limits of Humanity American Literary History 18.2 (2006) 312-331~~]
I will describe the veiled connections as the logic of coloniality, and the surface
right, the left, and the center) took away from them.

Cuban elites manipulate the plan to enjoin cuba to neoliberalism the alternative must ethically refuse neoliberalism as inevitable in cuba

Perez 2012, Yenisel Rodriguez The Ideological Success of Neoliberalism in Cuba, april 29, 2012
HAVANA TIMES, April 29 — The economic and social failure of neoliberalism is an
highest bidder, which will always be some empire at the world scale.

The modus operandi of the affirmative~’s economics is the historical drive behind colonization and mass violence against latin America culminating in wars, violence and genocide in the name of their economic ideals

Escobar 2004 ~~[Arturo, Beyond the Third World:
Imperial Globality, Global Coloniality, and Anti-Globalization Social Movements, Third world quarterly 2004.‎
One of the main consequences, for Santos, of the collapse of emancipation into
identities" and the transformation of cultures of solidarity into cultures of destruction.

The question of this debate is how best to challenge colonial institutions and foreground the lives of marginalized populations – this is an ethical imperative.

Mignolo 2009(Walter Mignolo, 2009, Epistemic Disobedience, Independent thought, and deconlonial freedom,, Walter Mignolo is a semiotician and Professor at Duke Univeristy, who has published extensively on semiotics and literary theory, and worked on different aspect of the modern and colonial world, exploring concepts such as global coloniality, the geopolitics of knowledge, transmodernity, border thinking, and pluriversality)
De-colonial thinking presupposes de-linking (epistemically and politically) from the
wealth through the money invested by consumers who buy health-promoting technology.

Our alternative is to reject the affirmative – when confronted with colonial projects the only ethical response is radical negativity. We are compelled to be disobedient to modernity.

Mignolo 09 ~~[Walter D. Mignolo, Epistemic Disobedience, Independent Thought and Decolonial Freedom, Theory and Culture 2009, published 2009~~]
ONCE UPON a time scholars assumed that the knowing subject in the disciplines is transparent
who take ~’originality~’ as the ultimate criterion for the final judgment.1


Even conservation biologists agree that species loss is slow and there~’s no impact

Julian Simon (world-renowned economist) 1998 The Ultimate Resource II,
Starting in the early 1980s I published the above critical analysis of the standard extinction
to see that the quotations fairly represent the gist of the authors~’ arguments.)

Species loss doesn~’t snowball

Thomas Gale Moore 98 (Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford) 1998 Climate of Fear, 98-99
Nevertheless, the loss of a class of living beings does not typically threaten other
As long as the host remains, so will parasites and symbiotic species.

We can recover

No impact—mass extinctions will be followed by recovery, not collapse

Michael Ruse (Philosopher and Author) August 24 2002 The Globe and Mail
Let me say straight out that this is the most egregiously mislabelled book I have
a tempo of its own, apparently, and can continue despite disruptions..

Climate change

Carbon dioxide does not lead to global warming—Provides cooling through photosynthesis

Philip Haddad June 22, 2011 PhD Chem. E. retd. Carbon Dioxide does not Cause Global Warming%21
There is a mistaken notion that carbon dioxide is the cause of global warming.
the more humid areas. Furthermore, carbon dioxide provides cooling through photosynthesis.

Negative feedbacks check warming

DE FREITAS 1-5-2011 (Chris de Freitas is an associate professor in the school of environment at the University of Auckland, NZ Herald,
The degree of warming directly caused by the extra carbon dioxide is, by itself
that support a theory or hypothesis. They are not resolved by ballot.

They cause faster warming – because large emission reductions remove sulfate aerosols which cool the Earth

Lovelock ~’9, Consultant of NASA, former president of the Marine Biological Association, and Honorary Visiting Fellow of Green Templeton College, Oxford (James, The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning: Enjoy it While You Can, 55-56
In 2004, two IPCC contributors, Peter Cox and Meinrat Andreae, raised the
"We live in a fool~’s climate and are damned whatever we do."

Sulfur offsets carbon dioxide solves warming

Walsh 11
~~[Bryan-staffwriter, "Has China Sky Helped Slow Global Warming," July 5, 2011,]

As it turns out, however, China sky may actually have another, surprising
controls kicked in and companies installed scrubbers in coal-fired power plants.


Sugarcane ethanol generates more pollution than previously thought

Campbell, Spak, and Carmichael 11 (J. E. Campbell, S.N. Spak, G. R. Carmichael, UI College of Engineering alumni, an assistant professor with joint appointments in the UI Public Policy Center, School of Urban and Regional Planning, and the UI College of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, "Sugarcane ethanol in Brazil a substantial pollution source", Western Farm Press, an industry trade magazine that provides growers and agribusiness with in-depth coverage of the region~’s major crops plus the legislative, environmental and regulatory issues that affect their businesses, 12/29/11,
University of Iowa researchers and their colleagues have shown that ethanol fuel producers in Brazil
, and the UI College of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.

Burning sugarcane produces 10 times the pollution of fossil fuels

Nova 12 (Joanne Nova, a science presenter, writer, and speaker; author of The Skeptic~’s Handbook, "Sugar cane ethanol biofuel produces 10 times the pollution of gasoline and diesel", JoNova, a blog that focuses on the science, funding and politics related to anthropogenic global warming, 7/22/12,
Indur Goklany calculated that biofuels policies killed nearly 200,000 people in 2010 alone
expense of biodiversity and health of plants and people? It seems so.

Cuban sugarcane industry cases a laundry list of environmental impacts

Patricia Grogg 2003 (Patricia Grogg, staff writer for Inter Press Service, "Environment-Cuba: Sugarcane a culprit in soil depletion," Aug 28, 2013

The sugar industry is among the major contributors to the degradation of Cuban soil,
, an expert with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) told Tierramérica

====Sugar ethanol industry development is super slow—-years before they have a chance to solve advantages====
Specht 13
~~[Jonathan-J.D. Wash. U St. Louis, Legal Advisor, "Raising Cane: Cuban Sugarcane Ethanol~’s Economic and Environmental Effects on the United States," Environmental Law %26 Policy Journal, Univ. of California Davis, Vol. 36:2, [[]]~~]

Like all new capitalist industries to emerge in the post-Castro era, whatever
, which will slow the creation of a sugarcane-based ethanol industry.